Did Andrew Jackson Really Hate the British?

Two years ago, I had the opportunity to present a paper at a symposium commemorating the bicentennial of the Battle of New Orleans. The papers from that symposium have now been published in a new book, The Battle of New Orleans in History and Memory (LSU Press).

The table of contents gives you some idea of the variety of topics covered by the essays:

Introduction by Laura Lyons McLemore

  1. “What We Know That Ain’t So”: Myths of the War of 1812 (Donald R. Hickey)
  2. “I Owe to Britain a Debt of Retaliatory Vengeance”: Assessing Andrew Jackson’s Hatred of the British (Mark R. Cheathem)
  3. “The Dreams of Empire”: The War of 1812 in an International Context (Alexander Mikaberidze)
  4. Objects of Scorn: Remembering African Americans and the War of 1812 (Gene Allen Smith)
  5. In Defense of Liberty: The Battalion d’Orleans and Its Battle for New Orleans (Paul Gelpi)
  6. Lessons Learned from the War of 1812 for the US Military in the Twenty-First Century (Blake Dunnavent)
  7. One Hundred Years of Hickory and Cotton Bales: The Battle of New Orleans Centennial Celebration (Joseph F. Stoltz III)
  8. Continually Heroic: Portraying Andrew Jackson through Classical and Contemporary Heroic Devices (Leslie Gregory Gruesbeck)
  9. The Battle of New Orleans in Popular Music and Culture (Tracey E. W. Laird)

My own contribution examines the commonly held idea that Jackson possessed a lifelong hatred of the British. In the essay, I traced the historiographical and popular development of this claim, then examined the historical evidence, including Jackson’s own writings. Like most history, the idea that Old Hickory saw red when he thought about the British seems to be mostly myth, with some truth mixed in.

I Believe Donald Trump

I have been a lifelong Republican. While I have voted for Democrats on the local and state levels, I cast my vote for Republican presidential candidates from 1996 on: Dole, Bush (2xs), McCain, and Romney. This year, I voted for Hillary Clinton. Why? Because I believe Donald Trump.

I believe Trump when he says that he will require all Muslims to register with the government.

I believe Trump when he says that he was able to “get away” with “inspecting” nude women and teenage girls competing in beauty pageants.

I believe Trump when he says that he wants his supporters to be violent and doesn’t condemn them when they follow through.

I believe Trump when he says that he thinks Mexicans who come to the U.S. are criminals, rapists, and drug dealers.

I believe Trump when he says that he doesn’t respect veterans, including deceased Purple Heart and Bronze Star awardee Humayun Khan and Vietnam War veteran and former Republican presidential candidate John McCain.

I believe Trump when he says that he can sexually assault women and get away with it because he’s a star.

I believe Trump when he says he will torture prisoners and kill their families.

I believe Trump when he says that he admires Russian dictator Vladimir Putin.

I believe Trump when he said that he would only accept the election results if he won.

I believe Trump when he said that he believes the president of the United States founded ISIS and wasn’t a U.S. citizen.

I believe Trump when he doesn’t condemn the racism among his supporters.

I believe Trump when he says that he doesn’t support the freedom of the press encapsulated in the First Amendment.

I believe Trump when he empowers conspiracy theorists such as Roger Stone and Alex Jones.

I believe that Trump the presidential candidate meant what he said (and what he didn’t say), and there’s no reason to think that President-elect Trump will pivot once he’s in office.

[Note: This piece helped me crystallize my feelings about Trump.]

Books for Spring 2017 Courses

Introduction to Documentary Editing

Mary-Jo Kline and Susan Holbrook Perdue, A Guide to Documentary Editing, 3rd. ed.  (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2008)–Available for free online at the link

Ted Widmer, Martin Van Buren (Times Books, 2004) ISBN 978-0805069228

Old South

Bruce Baker, What Reconstruction Meant: Historical Memory in the American South (Univ. of Virginia Press, 2009) ISBN 9780813928777

Edward Baptist, The Half Has Never Been Told: Slavery and the Making of American Capitalism (Basic Books, 2016) ISBN 9780465049660

Richard Follett et al., Plantation Kingdom: The American South and Its Global Commodities (Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 2016) ISBN 9781421419404

Nancy Isenberg, White Trash: The 400-Year Untold History of Class in America (Viking, 2016) ISBN 9780670785971


A Possible African-American Descendant of Andrew Jackson?

U.S. President Andrew Jackson in 1845, months before his deathA recent correspondent sent me a link to a post on a possible African-American descendant of President Andrew Jackson. I have never heard of the enslaved family from which the correspondent is descended, but in their response to his query, Prof. Henry Lous Gates, Jr., and Katrina Fahy do a good job of examining the available evidence and suggesting further avenues of research.

The claim of being descended from Andrew Jackson isn’t unusual. I’ve written previously about Hannah, an enslaved woman at Jackson’s Hermitage plantation. Some of Hannah’s descendants claim that Jackson fathered at least one of her children, as I noted in this article. It’s a disputed topic that deserves further exploration. That historians haven’t done more work on it is disappointing. I’ve previously attributed much of that inattention to John Spencer Bassett’s influence, but as Dan Feller and the editorial team at the Jackson Papers proceed quickly through Old Hickory’s presidency, it becomes less about Bassett and more about the profession’s unwillingness to grapple with Jackson as anything other than a one-dimensional caricature.

6 Years of Blogging

Hard to believe that it’s been six years since I made my first post.

More than ever, I’m convinced that the Jacksonian period is supremely relevant to understanding today’s United States, especially its politics. Despite Stanley Fish telling historians to keep quiet about modern-day presidential politics, “nobody puts Baby in the corner!”

A Historical Precedent for Dumping a Presidential Candidate

The Republican party is set to nominate Donald J. Trump as its nominee this week. Most signs indicate that a plan to derail the New Yorker’s convention nomination by unbinding delegates, thus freeing them to vote for someone else, will come to naught.

In 1844, another New Yorker discovered that going into a major party’s national convention as the presumptive nominee didn’t necessarily guarantee a victory. Martin Van Buren, who had served one term as president (1837-41), sought to recapture the White House for the Democrats after losing his reelection bid in 1840. Up until the convention met in Baltimore in late May, many Democrats assumed that Van Buren was the likeliest nominee. On the first ballot, in fact, the former president won a simple majority of the votes. Unfortunately for him, the party had passed a rule that required the nominee to win a 2/3s majority. For the next three ballots, Van Buren won a plurality of the votes, but he slowly lost ground to his closest rivals: James Buchanan, Lewis Cass, and Richard M. Johnson, who had been Van Buren’s vice president and had been on the 1840 Democratic ticket with him.

Unknown to Van Buren, work had begun to replace him even before the convention started. In April, the New Yorker had written a public letter disavowing the immediate annexation of Texas. This decision sunk him with his friend, Andrew Jackson, the former president and still-powerful Democratic statesman. In the days and hours leading up to the convention, Jackson met with several politicos, including Tennessee delegate Andrew Jackson Donelson, to find a replacement for Van Buren. He settled quickly on his loyal protegé and fellow Tennessean, James K. Polk. The former U.S. House Speaker was an ardent supporter of Texas’ immediate annexation, and his name had been prominently mentioned as a vice-presidential candidate in 1840 and in the months preceding the 1844 convention.

At Jackson’s direction, several members of the Tennessee delegation, including Donelson and Cave Johnson, worked behind the scenes in Baltimore to effect Polk’s nomination. They waited to orchestrate Polk’s nomination until it became clear that Van Buren did not possess enough votes to win the nomination and that none of the other leading candidates had a chance, either. “Young Hickory,” as he was known, went on to win the fall election against his Whig opponent, Henry Clay.

Of course, the presidential nominating system works differently now. The parties operate according to a system comprised of primaries and caucuses to determine their respective nominees weeks, if not months, before the national conventions meet. Delegates walk into the convention hall bound by rules that discourage or eliminate deviation from the planned pageantry, which is all conventions have proved to be in recent elections.

That doesn’t have to be the case, however. Republicans could take inspiration from the 1844 Democratic convention and decide to dump Trump for a “dark-horse” candidate like Polk. It worked for the Democrats in 1844, but it’s an unlikely occurrence for this year’s Republican party, which seems certain to seal its candidate’s fate in the November election.

This post was inspired by the Spring 2016 senior seminar paper written by Cumberland University student Josh Williams.

My Thoughts on Jackson and the $20 Bill

Here is the Tennessean editorial I wrote on the change to the $20 bill. Comments on the Jacksonian American Facebook page already reflect exactly what I was arguing against: We Americans can’t seem to find a way to understand our nation’s past without either vilifying or valorizing those who lived in it.

Books for Fall 2016

American Presidency

Randall Balmer, God in the White House: A History (HarperCollins, 2009) ISBN 9780060872588

James Broussard, Ronald Reagan: Champion of Conservative America (Routledge, 2014) ISBN 9780415521956

Evan Cornog, The Power and the Story: How Presidential Narratives Shape America (Penguin, 2004) ISBN 978159420022x

Gareth Davies and Julian E. Zelizer, America at the Ballot Box: Elections and Political History (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015) ISBN 9780812247190

Donald J. Ratcliffe, The One-Party Presidential Contest: Adams, Jackson, and 1824’s Five-Horse Race (University Press of Kansas, 2015) ISBN 9780700621309

Robert P. Watson and Anthony J. Eksterowicz, The Presidential Companion: Readings on the First Ladies, 2d. ed. (Univ. of South Carolina Press, 2003) ISBN 9781570034613

Civil War

Michael C.C. Adams, Living Hell: The Dark Side of the Civil War (Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 2014) ISBN 9781421412214

Gregory Downs, After Appomattox: Military Occupation and the Ends of War (Harvard Univ. Press, 2015) ISBN 9780674743984

Eric Foner, The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery (W.W. Norton, 2011) ISBN 9780393340662

Tony Horwitz, Confederates in the Attic: Dispatches from the Unfinished Civil War (Vintage, 1999) ISBN 9780679758334

Rachel Shelden, Washington Brotherhood: Politics, Social Life, and the Coming of the Civil War (Univ. of North Carolina Press, 2013) ISBN 9781469610856

The $20 Bill and Jacksonian Mythology


I’ve watched with keen interest the discussion about the $20 bill that has taken place over the last week or so. Most commentators seem to support the decision to move Andrew Jackson to the back of the bill and place Harriet Tubman on the front. I may have a published piece on this topic coming out soon, so I’m refraining from public comment for now.

In the meantime, though, there’s been some bad history in some of the reaction pieces that I’ve read. One of the most egregious is Suzanne Fields‘. A short list of the factual inaccuracies and distorted interpretations in her piece includes:

“He was the first president whose identity was forged outside the original 13 colonies.” (Jackson was actually 21 when he moved to what became Tennessee and was 29 when it became a state, so arguing that his identity was “forged” in his 20s is a stretch.)

“He was a self-made man in Tennessee” (Jackson owed much of his success to his kinship and political networks, including his wife Rachel’s family.)

“he diversified and democratized politics, blazing the way for any boy born in poverty to dream of rising as high as the Oval Office.” (Most scholars would agree that Jackson benefitted from political democratization more than he contributed to it. Also, his immediate family wasn’t wealthy, but poverty doesn’t describe its socioeconomic status, either.)

“He fought in that war with guerilla tactics in the remote Carolina backcountry, maturing in later years into a skilled dueler on behalf of the honor of his beloved wife Rachel, who was denounced as a bigamist because her lawyer had not properly tidied up her divorce proceedings.” (Jackson’s military service during the Revolution was as a courier. This description of Rachel’s divorce is virtually disconnected from any historical reality.)

“Jackson was . . . a fierce defender of democratic values” (This depended on the issue.)

“He even adopted an orphaned Native American baby as his son.” (This “fact” is so overused and misrepresented that I can only roll my eyes. Update: Fortuitously, Slate just interviewed Dawn Peterson, who has a new book coming out on Indian “adoptions.” )

Fields makes the point that Jackson is being treated differently from Washington and Jefferson, who held many of his same views and took many of the same actions that he did. That’s a reasonable argument to make, but much of the rest of her piece is ahistorical claptrap.

Tariff Wars and the Politics of Jacksonian America

Bolt Manuscript CoverI am pleased to announce that William K. Bolt‘s book, Tariff Wars and the Politics of Jacksonian America, is the inaugural volume in Vanderbilt University Press’ New Perspectives on Jacksonian America series.

From the catalog: Bolt’s book “show[s] why the tariff was an important part of the national narrative in the antebellum period. The debates in Congress over the tariff were acrimonious, with pitched arguments between politicians, interest groups, newspapers, and a broader electorate.”

From the back cover, “Bolt wisely integrates the discussion of the economic aspect of tariff rates with the political dimension. We discover shifting viewpoints, pledges, promises, half-truths, and outright deceit deftly engaged in by the likes of Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, Andrew Jackson, and James K. Polk. This volume is critical to understanding the intersection of the American economy and politics in the antebellum period.” John Belohlavek, author of Broken Glass: Caleb Cushing and the Shattering of the Union.

If you are interested in learning more about the series or want to submit a manuscript, please contact either me or Beth Salerno.